Leadership in Teaching: Using Student Perspectives on Administration, Supervision and Private Practice Clinical supervision is recognized as a distinctive area of practice and expertise, yet professional preparation in this area remains inadequate. This paper presents functional information describing the development and implementation of an experimental course on administration, supervision, and private practice, based on graduate student perceptions and preferences for course content ... Article
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Article  |   June 2011
Leadership in Teaching: Using Student Perspectives on Administration, Supervision and Private Practice
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Mary J. Emm
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, State University of New York at Cortland, Cortland, NY
  • Christine P. Cecconi
    Department of Speech-language Pathology and Audiology, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY
  • © 2011 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Article Information
Practice Management / Professional Issues & Training / Articles
Article   |   June 2011
Leadership in Teaching: Using Student Perspectives on Administration, Supervision and Private Practice
SIG 10 Perspectives on Issues in Higher Education, June 2011, Vol. 14, 21-28. doi:10.1044/ihe14.1.21
SIG 10 Perspectives on Issues in Higher Education, June 2011, Vol. 14, 21-28. doi:10.1044/ihe14.1.21

Clinical supervision is recognized as a distinctive area of practice and expertise, yet professional preparation in this area remains inadequate. This paper presents functional information describing the development and implementation of an experimental course on administration, supervision, and private practice, based on graduate student perceptions and preferences for course content and types of learning activities. Current pedagogical trends for universal design in learning and fostering student engagement were emphasized, including problem-based and collaborative learning. Results suggest that students were highly pleased with course content, interactive and group activities, as well as with assessment procedures used.

Within the past decade, there has been a marked increase in a focus on administration and supervision within the profession. This has been illustrated by the establishment of Special Interest Division 11, Administration and Supervision and the updated position statement Clinical Supervision in Speech-Language Pathology (ASHA, 2008a) that clearly describes clinical education as a distinct area of practice and an essential component of student education and continued competency. Despite these gains, however, Klick and Schmitt (2008) presented survey data indicating that only 20% of institutions offered formal training in clinical supervision, and a mere 32% of universities had mentoring programs for clinical supervisors. Klick and Schmitt further state that the majority of supervisors (76%) received professional preparation through experiences with a former supervisor who may have had no formal training with regard to the supervisory process. The knowledge and skills needed to be an effective supervisor are extensive (ASHA, 2008b) and clearly there is considerable room for improvement in the training of clinical educators.
In an effort to provide a meaningful educational experience for current graduate students in speech-language pathology and supply the foundation for future effective practices in this area, a one-credit-hour experimental elective course on administration and supervision was conceived. In addition, numerous graduate students had mentioned an interest in private practice and thus this area was considered for inclusion within the course content.
Pre-Course Survey
Prior to course development, a survey was conducted specifically to determine graduate student priorities for course content as well as feedback relating to individual learning styles and preferences. Light (2001) suggested the importance of incorporating student preferences into the course planning process. Fifteen students from a graduate class of 26, or 58%, planned to enroll in the elective class and thus completed the survey; actual enrollment was 19 students. This pre-course survey also provided a benchmark for post-course feedback comparison. In the first component of the survey, students were asked to rank each of 9 possible course-content areas according to the areas they considered most to least important for inclusion in the course, on a scale of 1-9 (with 1 representing most important and 9 least important). Table 1 presents results of the survey. The numbers within each column indicate the number of students who rated that item with the respective level of importance.
Table 1. Student preferences for course content
Student preferences for course content×
Course Content 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Course Content Ratings
Fundamentals of private practice 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0
Hands-on suggestions 1 5 1 3 0 2 2 0 1
Roles and responsibilities of administration 1 2 4 2 0 1 4 1 0
Generic principles of organizational management and strategic planning 1 1 3 4 2 1 1 2 0
The supervisory process 1 2 1 1 5 1 0 0 4
Dealing with conflict 1 1 0 3 2 3 1 3 1
Enhancing critical thinking and problem solving 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 3 1
Characteristics of strong leadership 0 1 2 1 1 1 5 1 3
Expert panel 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 4 4
Table 1. Student preferences for course content
Student preferences for course content×
Course Content 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Course Content Ratings
Fundamentals of private practice 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0
Hands-on suggestions 1 5 1 3 0 2 2 0 1
Roles and responsibilities of administration 1 2 4 2 0 1 4 1 0
Generic principles of organizational management and strategic planning 1 1 3 4 2 1 1 2 0
The supervisory process 1 2 1 1 5 1 0 0 4
Dealing with conflict 1 1 0 3 2 3 1 3 1
Enhancing critical thinking and problem solving 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 3 1
Characteristics of strong leadership 0 1 2 1 1 1 5 1 3
Expert panel 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 4 4
×
The results clearly indicated that, given a choice of 9 course-content areas within the broader topic of administration and supervision, students were most interested in learning about Fundamentals of Private Practice. They were also interested in learning about hands-on suggestions, roles and responsibilities of administration, and generic principles of organizational management and strategic planning. Interestingly, the supervisory process was viewed with neutral or little preference.
In addition to determining student preferences for topics to be addressed during the course, the authors were interested in seeking input regarding the types of activities and presentation formats that were most desired by the prospective students in the course. The results of this component of the survey information are presented in Table 2. The numbers within each column indicate the number of students who rated that item with the respective level of importance (with 1 representing most important and 7 least important).
Table 2. Student preferences for learning activities
Student preferences for learning activities×
Learning Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Learning Activity Ratings
Problem-based learning 6 3 1 2 2 1 0
Lecture with PowerPoint 2 7 3 0 0 3 0
Research/writing assignments 10 0 0 0 1 1 3
Group discussion 2 4 5 2 0 2 0
Role playing 6 3 0 2 2 0 20
Peer/collaborative learning 5 1 3 3 1 0 2
Videotape analysis 4 1 1 3 5 0 1
Table 2. Student preferences for learning activities
Student preferences for learning activities×
Learning Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Learning Activity Ratings
Problem-based learning 6 3 1 2 2 1 0
Lecture with PowerPoint 2 7 3 0 0 3 0
Research/writing assignments 10 0 0 0 1 1 3
Group discussion 2 4 5 2 0 2 0
Role playing 6 3 0 2 2 0 20
Peer/collaborative learning 5 1 3 3 1 0 2
Videotape analysis 4 1 1 3 5 0 1
×
These results suggest that, given a choice of 7 learning contexts/procedures, 3 learning were preferred: lecture with power-point, problem-based learning, and group discussion.
Course Content and Delivery
Following determination of the basic content areas, key principles of universal design for learning were utilized to develop significant learning experiences (Fink, 2003). Particular attention was paid to factors that facilitate student engagement, including facilitating critical thinking (Gavett & Peaper, 2006; Kurfiss, 1988), collaborative learning (Potts & Ginsberg, 2008), activating emotive content (Fink, 2003), and fostering group discussion (Jones, 2008).
The one-credit course was co-taught by two professors and was presented over 6 classroom sessions of 2.5 hours each. It included the following learning objectives:
  • Understand the nature of the supervisory process and characteristics of strong supervision

  • List the roles and responsibilities of department and organizational administrators

  • Utilize functional strategies to promote student and employee growth

  • Describe legal issues relevant to administration and supervision

  • Create a business plan composed of key elements necessary for a successful private practice

  • Evaluate the advantage and challenges of private practice in Speech-Language Pathology

A minimum of two collaborative or interactive experiences were implemented each day to ensure active student engagement and participation. Course Content and Engagement Activities are included in Table 3.
Table 3. Course content and associated learning activities
Course content and associated learning activities×
Topics Engagement Activities
Content Area: Supervision
  • Characteristics of Effective Supervisors

  • ASHA Position Statement on Supervision

  • Required Knowledge and Skills for Supervisors

  • The Supervisory Process and Stages of Supervision

  • Providing Effective Feedback

  • Facilitating Critical Thinking

Whole Class Brainstorming Activity
  • Describe the ideal clinical fellowship supervisor

  • List characteristics of the ideal department administrator

  • Describe the nightmare supervisor

  • Detail the characteristics of the least desired boss

  • Concept Map: Organize brainstorm data into categories of supervisory skills and discuss their importance

  • Problem-based learning in small groups involving supervision scenarios: Discussion of the stage/style of supervision needed for supervision problems, and specific feedback needed to resolve the situation

Content Area: Administration
  • Roles & Responsibilities of Administrators

  • Differences Between Leaders and Managers

  • Characteristics of Highly Effective Leaders

  • Conflict Management

  • Individual Personality Analysis

  • Individual Analysis of Leadership Potential

  • Group work: Generate questions to ask prospective employees and bosses during interview process

  • Group problem-based learning: How to resolve personality clashes at work

Content Area: Private Practice
  • Private Practice Models including Sole Proprietor, Contractor, Corporation

  • Pre-requisite Skills for an Effective Private Practice

  • Contracts

  • Liability

  • Billing, Reimbursement, Coding

  • Advantages/Challenges to Private Practice

  • Jeopardy game, including answers regarding HIPAA, infection control, funding, & marketing topics

  • Feasibility group study: Determine cost effectiveness of engaging in private practice/contract work vs. being employed, considering scheduling constraints, income needs and reimbursement, cost of driving, and benefits

Table 3. Course content and associated learning activities
Course content and associated learning activities×
Topics Engagement Activities
Content Area: Supervision
  • Characteristics of Effective Supervisors

  • ASHA Position Statement on Supervision

  • Required Knowledge and Skills for Supervisors

  • The Supervisory Process and Stages of Supervision

  • Providing Effective Feedback

  • Facilitating Critical Thinking

Whole Class Brainstorming Activity
  • Describe the ideal clinical fellowship supervisor

  • List characteristics of the ideal department administrator

  • Describe the nightmare supervisor

  • Detail the characteristics of the least desired boss

  • Concept Map: Organize brainstorm data into categories of supervisory skills and discuss their importance

  • Problem-based learning in small groups involving supervision scenarios: Discussion of the stage/style of supervision needed for supervision problems, and specific feedback needed to resolve the situation

Content Area: Administration
  • Roles & Responsibilities of Administrators

  • Differences Between Leaders and Managers

  • Characteristics of Highly Effective Leaders

  • Conflict Management

  • Individual Personality Analysis

  • Individual Analysis of Leadership Potential

  • Group work: Generate questions to ask prospective employees and bosses during interview process

  • Group problem-based learning: How to resolve personality clashes at work

Content Area: Private Practice
  • Private Practice Models including Sole Proprietor, Contractor, Corporation

  • Pre-requisite Skills for an Effective Private Practice

  • Contracts

  • Liability

  • Billing, Reimbursement, Coding

  • Advantages/Challenges to Private Practice

  • Jeopardy game, including answers regarding HIPAA, infection control, funding, & marketing topics

  • Feasibility group study: Determine cost effectiveness of engaging in private practice/contract work vs. being employed, considering scheduling constraints, income needs and reimbursement, cost of driving, and benefits

×
Assessment of student learning was based on three parameters. Class participation and teamwork counted for 25%. Students were evaluated on professional behaviors including attendance, class discussion and participation in class, and teamwork. A four-point rubric was developed for grading the following areas: interaction, preparation, discussion, commenting, and participation.
Development of a supervisory performance evaluation tool counted for 25%. This assignment involved identifying 3 core performance or skill areas that should be demonstrated by a supervisor and then detailing 5 specific competencies/items for each of the core performance areas that should be assessed. Students were asked to utilize a likert scale (such as 1-5, 1-7) as the mechanism for evaluating supervisory performance. For example, students could have chosen to assess a supervisor’s interpersonal communication including specific areas of listening, approachability, working relationship, collaboration, and managing conflict. A four-point rubric was developed and applied for grading purposes to assess content, subsection information, organization, language use, and convention.
The final project was the development of a private practice business plan, counting for 50%. This assignment required students to develop a comprehensive business plan detailing:
  • A description of the business (specific population served including ages and disorder types; a business model based on those presented in class; the location of business and where services would be provided; services offered; and personnel, including self and other individuals if relevant).

  • Funding sources, describing basis of revenue such as contracts, private pay, entitlement programs, insurance, and anticipated billable hours.

  • Plan for advertising and marketing, highlighting strategies to be employed, cost of implementing these and sources of referrals.

  • Initial operating budget and listing of specific materials and equipment to be ordered, given a specific, designated monetary value from which to work.

Student performance on this assignment was evaluated utilizing the same four-point rubric format employed throughout the course which included: understanding of the topic, content and development of the plan, language use, and conventions.
Each assignment was graded collaboratively by the professors and consensus was reached when discrepancies occurred regarding individual student performance on any assignment.
Student Performance and Post-Course Feedback
As would be anticipated in a graduate elective course, overall student performance was strong. Given a four-point rubric scale, students demonstrated adequate or above average skills on each of the three parameters assessed: class participation, development of a supervisory performance evaluation tool, and creation of a private practice business plan. The business plan proved to be the most challenging assignment, characterized by greater variation in depth of student content across required elements.
Following completion of the course, students were asked to specify areas of the course that they found most beneficial. Students were asked to list the three course-content areas they enjoyed the most, the three course-content areas that they found most useful, and the three learning activities they most preferred. Students’ preferences are indicated in Tables 4, 5, and 6.
Table 4. Course- content areas rated highest by students based on enjoyment of content. (N=18)
Course- content areas rated highest by students based on enjoyment of content. (N=18)×
Content Areas Number of Students Rating Area
Private Practice 12
Conflict management 8
Personality types 7
The supervisory process 7
Feedback 5
Roles and Responsibilities of administration 2
Leadership 2
Critical thinking 1
Table 4. Course- content areas rated highest by students based on enjoyment of content. (N=18)
Course- content areas rated highest by students based on enjoyment of content. (N=18)×
Content Areas Number of Students Rating Area
Private Practice 12
Conflict management 8
Personality types 7
The supervisory process 7
Feedback 5
Roles and Responsibilities of administration 2
Leadership 2
Critical thinking 1
×
Table 5. Course- content areas rated highest by students based on usefulness of content. (n=18)
Course- content areas rated highest by students based on usefulness of content. (n=18)×
Content Areas Number of Students Rating Area
Private Practice 11
Roles and Responsibilities of administration 8
Feedback 7
Conflict management 7
The supervisory process 6
Critical thinking 2
Personality types 1
Leadership 1
Table 5. Course- content areas rated highest by students based on usefulness of content. (n=18)
Course- content areas rated highest by students based on usefulness of content. (n=18)×
Content Areas Number of Students Rating Area
Private Practice 11
Roles and Responsibilities of administration 8
Feedback 7
Conflict management 7
The supervisory process 6
Critical thinking 2
Personality types 1
Leadership 1
×
Table 6. Learning activities rated highest by students. (n=18)
Learning activities rated highest by students. (n=18)×
Learning Preferences Number of Students Rating Area
Class discussion 13
Problem based learning with cases 12
Group activities 10
Lecture with power point 7
Table 6. Learning activities rated highest by students. (n=18)
Learning activities rated highest by students. (n=18)×
Learning Preferences Number of Students Rating Area
Class discussion 13
Problem based learning with cases 12
Group activities 10
Lecture with power point 7
×
Interestingly, there was significant discrepancy between the pre-survey responses and post-course feedback. Elements of the course that were enjoyed most did not necessarily correspond to areas found most useful, with the exception of private practice, which was ranked highest in both areas. In addition, content areas that were most preferred in terms of enjoyment and usefulness did not directly correlate to areas that students anticipated being important to their learning. Students clearly preferred group discussion and activities as well as problem-based learning over power point presentations, although lecture with power point had been highly ranked in the pre-course survey.
Conclusions and Future Directions
The course was offered in summer 2009 and summer 2010, and will be repeated again in 2011. Both classes that have completed the course considered it to be highly successful despite demonstrating different group dynamics and novel perspectives. At the completion of both classes, students commented positively on the knowledge base of the professors, the types of activities employed, and the relaxed manner in which the course was taught. As illustrated by discrepancies between pre-course feedback and post-course feedback, it is clear that students cannot always predict what they will find most beneficial.
One explanation of the success of this course was that the strategies employed for course development were consistent with suggestions proposed by Fink (2010) regarding integrated course design and the creation of significant learning through meaningful and active learning experiences. During the development of the course, the professors discussed and ensured inclusion of the factors that Fink considered essential, such as specific context, expectations of others, characteristics of the students, characteristics of the subject, and characteristics of the teachers. A variety of activities designed to promote student learning and to be functional to the needs of a future professional in the supervisory, administrative, and/or private practitioner role were successfully used. Clinical educators must continue to use current pedagogical trends, professional judgment, and experience to guide decisions regarding content as well as student perspectives in order to provide balance and benefit in instruction. For this course, a pre-course survey each year would be helpful to determine the specific degree of depth presented on each topic.
Students clearly benefited from information on private practice, an area that was enjoyed the most and rated the highest in terms of usefulness. The demographic profile of ASHA members and nonmembers reported for 2009 (ASHA, 2010) indicated that 15% of certificate holders in speech-language pathology are employed either part time or full time in private practice. Given the current professional demographics and the prevalence of private practice as a viable and popular work environment, the decision to include private practice within the course content was prudent.
Finally, the critical need for training in supervision continues to be affirmed. Victor (2010) reported the results of the Division 11 Supervisor Credential Survey. According to the survey, the majority of respondents had supervised at some level, felt that formal training was “very important” or “somewhat important,” and felt that training would be beneficial for different training/experience levels of supervisors. Although only 18.7% of respondents received supervisory training in college/university courses, 40.1 % stated they would participate in that format if it was offered (as cited by Carozza 2011). It is important professionals take on the role of supervisors and administrators and that when they do, they feel competent. Offering a college course on these topics is a logical way to prepare students for that role.
References
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008a). Clinical supervision in speech-language pathology [Position Statement]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/html/PS2008-00295.html
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008a). Clinical supervision in speech-language pathology [Position Statement]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/html/PS2008-00295.html×
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008b). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists providing clinical supervision [Knowledge and Skills]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/docs/html/KS2008-00294.html
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008b). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists providing clinical supervision [Knowledge and Skills]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/docs/html/KS2008-00294.html×
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2010). Demographic profile of ASHA members and nonmembers certificate holders certified in speech-language pathology. Only January 1 through December 31, 2009. Retrieved from www.asha.org/research/membershipdata/membercount.htm
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2010). Demographic profile of ASHA members and nonmembers certificate holders certified in speech-language pathology. Only January 1 through December 31, 2009. Retrieved from www.asha.org/research/membershipdata/membercount.htm×
Anderson, J. L. (1988). The supervisory process in speech-language pathology and audiology. Boston, MA: A College Hill Publication-A Division of Little, Brown and Company.
Anderson, J. L. (1988). The supervisory process in speech-language pathology and audiology. Boston, MA: A College Hill Publication-A Division of Little, Brown and Company.×
Carozza, L. (2011). Science of successful supervision and mentorship. (pp.193–203). San Diego, CA: Plural.
Carozza, L. (2011). Science of successful supervision and mentorship. (pp.193–203). San Diego, CA: Plural.×
Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.×
Fink, L. D. (2010). Designing our courses for greater student engagement and better student learning. Perspectives on Issues in Higher Education, 13(1), 3–12. [Article]
Fink, L. D. (2010). Designing our courses for greater student engagement and better student learning. Perspectives on Issues in Higher Education, 13(1), 3–12. [Article] ×
Gavett, E., & Peaper, R. , ( 2006, November). Developing critical thinking skills in student clinicians: The role of questions. Poster session presented at the annual Convention of the American Speech- Language-Hearing Association, Miami, FL.
Gavett, E., & Peaper, R. , ( 2006, November). Developing critical thinking skills in student clinicians: The role of questions. Poster session presented at the annual Convention of the American Speech- Language-Hearing Association, Miami, FL.×
Jones, R. C. (2008). The why of class participation: A discussion worth asking. College Teaching, 56(1), 59–62. [Article]
Jones, R. C. (2008). The why of class participation: A discussion worth asking. College Teaching, 56(1), 59–62. [Article] ×
Klick, P., & Schmit, M. ( 2008, November). Supervision of graduate students in university clinics: Professional preparation. Session presented at the annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, New Orleans, LA.
Klick, P., & Schmit, M. ( 2008, November). Supervision of graduate students in university clinics: Professional preparation. Session presented at the annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, New Orleans, LA.×
Kurfiss, J. (1988). Critical thinking: Theory, research, practice, and possibilities. ASHE-ERIC higher education report no. 2. Washington, DC: The George Washington University.
Kurfiss, J. (1988). Critical thinking: Theory, research, practice, and possibilities. ASHE-ERIC higher education report no. 2. Washington, DC: The George Washington University.×
Light, R. J. (2001). Making the most of college: Students speak their minds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Light, R. J. (2001). Making the most of college: Students speak their minds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.×
Potts, C., & Ginsberg, S. (2008) Collaborative learning in the speech-language pathology and audiology classroom. Perspectives on Issues in Higher Education, 11, 9–11. [Article]
Potts, C., & Ginsberg, S. (2008) Collaborative learning in the speech-language pathology and audiology classroom. Perspectives on Issues in Higher Education, 11, 9–11. [Article] ×
Victor, S. (2010). Division 11 supervisor credential survey results, coordinator’s column. Perspectives on Administration and Supervision, 20(3), 83–84. [Article]
Victor, S. (2010). Division 11 supervisor credential survey results, coordinator’s column. Perspectives on Administration and Supervision, 20(3), 83–84. [Article] ×
Table 1. Student preferences for course content
Student preferences for course content×
Course Content 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Course Content Ratings
Fundamentals of private practice 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0
Hands-on suggestions 1 5 1 3 0 2 2 0 1
Roles and responsibilities of administration 1 2 4 2 0 1 4 1 0
Generic principles of organizational management and strategic planning 1 1 3 4 2 1 1 2 0
The supervisory process 1 2 1 1 5 1 0 0 4
Dealing with conflict 1 1 0 3 2 3 1 3 1
Enhancing critical thinking and problem solving 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 3 1
Characteristics of strong leadership 0 1 2 1 1 1 5 1 3
Expert panel 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 4 4
Table 1. Student preferences for course content
Student preferences for course content×
Course Content 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Course Content Ratings
Fundamentals of private practice 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0
Hands-on suggestions 1 5 1 3 0 2 2 0 1
Roles and responsibilities of administration 1 2 4 2 0 1 4 1 0
Generic principles of organizational management and strategic planning 1 1 3 4 2 1 1 2 0
The supervisory process 1 2 1 1 5 1 0 0 4
Dealing with conflict 1 1 0 3 2 3 1 3 1
Enhancing critical thinking and problem solving 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 3 1
Characteristics of strong leadership 0 1 2 1 1 1 5 1 3
Expert panel 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 4 4
×
Table 2. Student preferences for learning activities
Student preferences for learning activities×
Learning Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Learning Activity Ratings
Problem-based learning 6 3 1 2 2 1 0
Lecture with PowerPoint 2 7 3 0 0 3 0
Research/writing assignments 10 0 0 0 1 1 3
Group discussion 2 4 5 2 0 2 0
Role playing 6 3 0 2 2 0 20
Peer/collaborative learning 5 1 3 3 1 0 2
Videotape analysis 4 1 1 3 5 0 1
Table 2. Student preferences for learning activities
Student preferences for learning activities×
Learning Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Learning Activity Ratings
Problem-based learning 6 3 1 2 2 1 0
Lecture with PowerPoint 2 7 3 0 0 3 0
Research/writing assignments 10 0 0 0 1 1 3
Group discussion 2 4 5 2 0 2 0
Role playing 6 3 0 2 2 0 20
Peer/collaborative learning 5 1 3 3 1 0 2
Videotape analysis 4 1 1 3 5 0 1
×
Table 3. Course content and associated learning activities
Course content and associated learning activities×
Topics Engagement Activities
Content Area: Supervision
  • Characteristics of Effective Supervisors

  • ASHA Position Statement on Supervision

  • Required Knowledge and Skills for Supervisors

  • The Supervisory Process and Stages of Supervision

  • Providing Effective Feedback

  • Facilitating Critical Thinking

Whole Class Brainstorming Activity
  • Describe the ideal clinical fellowship supervisor

  • List characteristics of the ideal department administrator

  • Describe the nightmare supervisor

  • Detail the characteristics of the least desired boss

  • Concept Map: Organize brainstorm data into categories of supervisory skills and discuss their importance

  • Problem-based learning in small groups involving supervision scenarios: Discussion of the stage/style of supervision needed for supervision problems, and specific feedback needed to resolve the situation

Content Area: Administration
  • Roles & Responsibilities of Administrators

  • Differences Between Leaders and Managers

  • Characteristics of Highly Effective Leaders

  • Conflict Management

  • Individual Personality Analysis

  • Individual Analysis of Leadership Potential

  • Group work: Generate questions to ask prospective employees and bosses during interview process

  • Group problem-based learning: How to resolve personality clashes at work

Content Area: Private Practice
  • Private Practice Models including Sole Proprietor, Contractor, Corporation

  • Pre-requisite Skills for an Effective Private Practice

  • Contracts

  • Liability

  • Billing, Reimbursement, Coding

  • Advantages/Challenges to Private Practice

  • Jeopardy game, including answers regarding HIPAA, infection control, funding, & marketing topics

  • Feasibility group study: Determine cost effectiveness of engaging in private practice/contract work vs. being employed, considering scheduling constraints, income needs and reimbursement, cost of driving, and benefits

Table 3. Course content and associated learning activities
Course content and associated learning activities×
Topics Engagement Activities
Content Area: Supervision
  • Characteristics of Effective Supervisors

  • ASHA Position Statement on Supervision

  • Required Knowledge and Skills for Supervisors

  • The Supervisory Process and Stages of Supervision

  • Providing Effective Feedback

  • Facilitating Critical Thinking

Whole Class Brainstorming Activity
  • Describe the ideal clinical fellowship supervisor

  • List characteristics of the ideal department administrator

  • Describe the nightmare supervisor

  • Detail the characteristics of the least desired boss

  • Concept Map: Organize brainstorm data into categories of supervisory skills and discuss their importance

  • Problem-based learning in small groups involving supervision scenarios: Discussion of the stage/style of supervision needed for supervision problems, and specific feedback needed to resolve the situation

Content Area: Administration
  • Roles & Responsibilities of Administrators

  • Differences Between Leaders and Managers

  • Characteristics of Highly Effective Leaders

  • Conflict Management

  • Individual Personality Analysis

  • Individual Analysis of Leadership Potential

  • Group work: Generate questions to ask prospective employees and bosses during interview process

  • Group problem-based learning: How to resolve personality clashes at work

Content Area: Private Practice
  • Private Practice Models including Sole Proprietor, Contractor, Corporation

  • Pre-requisite Skills for an Effective Private Practice

  • Contracts

  • Liability

  • Billing, Reimbursement, Coding

  • Advantages/Challenges to Private Practice

  • Jeopardy game, including answers regarding HIPAA, infection control, funding, & marketing topics

  • Feasibility group study: Determine cost effectiveness of engaging in private practice/contract work vs. being employed, considering scheduling constraints, income needs and reimbursement, cost of driving, and benefits

×
Table 4. Course- content areas rated highest by students based on enjoyment of content. (N=18)
Course- content areas rated highest by students based on enjoyment of content. (N=18)×
Content Areas Number of Students Rating Area
Private Practice 12
Conflict management 8
Personality types 7
The supervisory process 7
Feedback 5
Roles and Responsibilities of administration 2
Leadership 2
Critical thinking 1
Table 4. Course- content areas rated highest by students based on enjoyment of content. (N=18)
Course- content areas rated highest by students based on enjoyment of content. (N=18)×
Content Areas Number of Students Rating Area
Private Practice 12
Conflict management 8
Personality types 7
The supervisory process 7
Feedback 5
Roles and Responsibilities of administration 2
Leadership 2
Critical thinking 1
×
Table 5. Course- content areas rated highest by students based on usefulness of content. (n=18)
Course- content areas rated highest by students based on usefulness of content. (n=18)×
Content Areas Number of Students Rating Area
Private Practice 11
Roles and Responsibilities of administration 8
Feedback 7
Conflict management 7
The supervisory process 6
Critical thinking 2
Personality types 1
Leadership 1
Table 5. Course- content areas rated highest by students based on usefulness of content. (n=18)
Course- content areas rated highest by students based on usefulness of content. (n=18)×
Content Areas Number of Students Rating Area
Private Practice 11
Roles and Responsibilities of administration 8
Feedback 7
Conflict management 7
The supervisory process 6
Critical thinking 2
Personality types 1
Leadership 1
×
Table 6. Learning activities rated highest by students. (n=18)
Learning activities rated highest by students. (n=18)×
Learning Preferences Number of Students Rating Area
Class discussion 13
Problem based learning with cases 12
Group activities 10
Lecture with power point 7
Table 6. Learning activities rated highest by students. (n=18)
Learning activities rated highest by students. (n=18)×
Learning Preferences Number of Students Rating Area
Class discussion 13
Problem based learning with cases 12
Group activities 10
Lecture with power point 7
×
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